Neurological disorder


ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity. Children are born with it. ADHD is a complex pathology with no single cause.


It can be broken down into three types of attentional deficits:

1- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
2- Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD)
3- Hyperactivity without attention deficit


Children and adults with ADHD have imbalances in the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and noradrenaline. This imbalance can lead to attention disorders, hyperactivity, impulsivity and other symptoms, such as antisocial or even aggressive behavior.


*Please note that the book is currently only available in French.


ADHD is hereditary. According to researchers, its hereditary transmission or genetic influence of ADHD is about 75% (source of the figure). This means that ADHD is transmitted almost like eye color or height. It is also estimated that ADHD can be attributable to environmental factors.

Other factors that can explain the onset of ADHD include:

  • The child experienced a severe head injury.
  • The child had bacterial meningitis.
  • The child was born prematurely.
  • The child experienced oxygen deprivation at birth.


ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily manifests during childhood, although some symptoms may persist into adulthood. Its common symptoms can vary from person to person, but they are generally grouped into three main categories: attention difficulties, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

It is important to remember that everyone may experience these behaviors from time to time. For a diagnosis of ADHD to be made, these symptoms must be frequent, persistent, and significantly interfere with the individual’s daily functioning.


Preventing the onset of ADHD is challenging since its causes are still poorly understood and are largely genetic. However, it is important to take measures to reduce the risks of head injuries, meningitis, exposure to pollutants, and heavy metal poisoning (especially lead).

Furthermore, it is reasonable to assume that pregnant women will give their future child the best chances by taking the following precautions:

  • not smoking;
  • avoiding alcohol and drugs;
  • minimizing exposure to environmental pollutants.

How can I support my child?

Here are some measures that will create a conducive environment for your child if they have ADHD:

  • Learn as much as possible about ADHD. This will help you understand your child’s behaviors.
  • Create a structured and organized environment, especially at home and school. Establish clear routines, set up a schedule and task lists, and ensure that the workspace or living area is tidy and free from excessive distractions.
  • Encourage regular physical activity, as it can help channel excess energy and improve concentration and attention.
  • Prioritize a balanced diet for your child.
  • Consult a healthcare professional specializing in ADHD for accurate diagnosis and regular monitoring.

In dealing with ADHD, adopting psychosocial and pharmacological treatment is recommended. These approaches involve combining medication, such as methylphenidate, with other healthcare services such as consultations with a psychoeducator, an educational therapist, or a psychologist; family therapy, support groups, or even training to help parents care for their child.


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